The climate of Rawalpindi, in the North Punjab, Pakistan is very interesting with its moderate summers and appreciable rainfall throughout the year.
The climate of this city is highly influenced firstly by its close proximity to hill stations (Murree at 7500 ft. is only 35 miles away) and secondly by its geographical location. In the following lines we will discuss the two factors one by one.
The Close Proximity To Hills
Although the station of Rawalpindi has a low height of only 1700 feet but the closeness to hills affect its summer as well as winter climate.
Conditions in Summer
It is a well-known fact that Rawalpindi, although located in Punjab, has much less severe summer that those of other plain stations of Punjab. Here we will take Lahore, a famous and second largest city of Pakistan and a typical central Punjab plain location, as a comparison to study this climatic factor.
In Rawalpindi the summer starts in Mid-April while at Lahore it is already firmly established by the middle of March. The average summer temperatures of the pre-monsoon months of April, May and June is 77 F at Rawalpindi while at Lahore it is 87 F. This is a difference of straight 10 F whereas the point to be noted is that the difference of height between the two cities is only 900 feet. The explanation of this is that due to the closeness of Rawalpindi to the hills, it does not have any prolonged heat spell and if, for some days, a heat waves arrives, it is followed by thunderstorm and rain a few days later.
Conditions In Winter
The winters in Rawalpindi are also much chillier than any other station on the Punjab Plains. In this city, winter season lasts from November to March while in other stations of Punjab, the winter season lasts from December to February.
Nights are specifically chilly due to katabatic effect. The cold air of the nearby mountains slides down to this station during clear winter nights turning the nights uncomfortably cold in winters.
The Effect Of Geographical Location
This is the most important factor as far as rainfall is concerned. Such is the geographical location of this place that it receives substantial rain from both the summer and winter rain bearing systems and no month at this station can be said to be dry.
Thus Rawalpindi, in Northern Punjab, has got a moderate climate with plenty of rain both in winter and in summer.